The pronotal side is the edge of the middle part (pronotum) of the beetle. The posterior part of this edge can be rather straight or more or less sinuate depending on the species. The posterior angles are found at both sides of this posterior pronotal side. These parts are important diagnostic, especially when distinguishing females.

Lucanus cervus with the posterior part of the pronotum encircled and posterior angles marked by an arrow (Photo Michele Zilioli)

Dorsal view of the pronotum of different species

Lucanus cervus: The pronotal side is not sinuate before the blunt posterior angle
pbarbarossa-dorsal-pronotum3
Lucanus barbarossa: The pronotal side is strongly sinuate before the sharp posterior angle
ltetraodon-dorsal-pronotum
Lucanus tetraodon: The pronotal side is sinuate before the quite sharp posterior angle
libericus-dorsal-pronotum
Lucanus ibericus: The pronotal side is sinuate before the sharp posterior angle
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